University Professor, Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge.
Acting Head of Department Jan 2005- Dec 2005
Fellow, St. Catharine's College.
Director of Studies in Land Economy at St. Catharine's College
Peter Tyler is a Professor in urban and regional economics in the Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge and President and Fellow of St. Catharine's College. He has an extensive track record in undertaking research with a particular emphasis on urban and regional economics and industrial policy. He has been a Project Director for over seventy major research projects for Government, many involving the assessment of public policy resulting in the publication of forty research monographs of which twenty-four have been of book length. Besides his work in the United Kingdom for HM Government he has also undertaken research for the European Commission, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development on urban, regional and industrial and evaluation policy. He has been an Expert Advisor to the OECD, European Commission and HM Government, including serving on the National Evaluation Panel for Sure Start (HM Government initiative for children under 5). He was a Programme Leader for the Cambridge MIT initiative and is a Policy Fellow at the Cambridge Centre for Science and Policy. During 2016 he was an Expert Advisor to UN Habitat III.
Peter was made a Member of the Royal Town Planning on the basis of his contribution to urban and regional spatial planning and a Fellow of the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors in the light of his considerable knowledge and experience in the spheres of land, property or construction. He is an Academician of the Learned Society for Social Sciences. In recent years he has been involved in research to value the benefits of urban regeneration and economic development (DCLG), the evaluation of EU Cohesion Policy 2007-2013 (DG Regio) and Resilient Regions and Cities (ESRC). He recently completed a major study on the economic impact of the Cambridge Bioscience cluster and is currently investigating the long term dynamics of interdependent infrastructure systems (EPSRC), the evolving economic performance of UK cities (UK Department of Foresight) and is a Co-Investigator on a new ESRC research project on British Urban Transformations.
- Local labour and property markets
- Innovation and technology
- Evaluation of Government policies
- Economic restructuring
- Business performance; small and medium enterprises
- Tyler, P with Gardiner, B and Martin, R. The Evolving Performance of Cities. Foresight, Government Office for Science. 2014.
- Tyler, P, Policy Analysis on the Job Creation as an Indicator of Outcomes in ERDF Programmes. European Commission, Directorate General Regional Policy. 2014.
- Tyler, P with Gardiner, B and Martin, R. Planning for an Urban Revival for the North, in Manns, J. Ed., Kaleidoscope City: Reflections on Planning and London.2014.
- Tyler, P, Policy Analysis on the Performance of Cohesion Policy. European Commission, Directorate General Regional Policy. 2014.
- Tyler, P with Beaven, R, Birkin, M, Crawford Brown, D, Kelly, S, Thoung, C and Zuo, C. Future Demand for Infrastructure Services. In Planning Infrastructure for the 21st Century, CUP, 2014 (Forthcoming).
- Tyler with Tran, M, Hall, J, Hickford, A, Nicholls, R, Alderson, D, Barr, S, Baruah, P, Beavan, R, Birkin, M, Lainey, S, Byers, E, Chaudry, M, Curtis, T, Ebrahimy, Eyre, N, Hiteva, R, Jenkins, N, Jones, C, Lisby, C, Leatherhead, A, Manning, L, Otto, A, Oughton, E, Powrie, W, Preston, J, Qadran, M, Thoung, C, Watson, J, Watson, G and Zuo, C. National Infrastructure Assessment: Analysis of Options for Infrastructure Provision in Great Britain. ISBN 978-1-874370-52-9. 2014
- Tyler, P. with Garretsen, H, Martin, R, McCann, P. The Future of Regional Policy. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 5, pp. 179-186.2013.
- Tyler, with Chadwick, M and Warnock, C. How to raise the bar on impact evaluation: Challenges for the evaluation of local enterprise partnerships and the regional growth fund in times of austerity. In Economic Development under the Coalition Government. Local Economy, November 12, 28 (7-8). 2013.
- Tyler, P, Policy Analysis on the Performance of Cohesion Policy. European Commission, Directorate General Regional Policy. 2013.
- Tyler, P. with Donald, B., Gertler, M S. 'Creatives after the Crash', Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 6, 3-21. 2013.
- Tyler, P. with Gardiner, B, Martin, R, and Sunley, P Spatially Unbalanced Growth in the British Economy. Journal of Economic Geography, Pp 1-40. 2013.
- Tyler, P, Warnock, C, Provins, A and Lenz, B. Valuing the Benefits of Urban Regeneration. Urban Studies. Volume 50. 2013.
- Tyler, P, Policy Analysis on the Performance of Financial Engineering Instruments. European Commission, Directorate General Regional Policy. 2012.
- Tyler, P, Bond, S, Gardiner, B. (2012). The Impact of Enterprise Zone Tax Benefits on Local Property Markets in England: Who Actually Benefits. Journal of Property Research.
- Tyler, P with Martin, R and Kitson, M. The Geographies of Austerity, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, Nov, 2011.
- Tyler, P. Strategies for Underperforming Places. SERC Policy Paper 6, London. 2011.
- Tyler, P. with Arestis, P and Martin, R. The Persistence of Inequality? Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society. March 2011, 4 (1).
- Tyler, P with Gardiner, B and Martin, R. Does Spatial Agglomeration Increase National Growth? Some Evidence from Europe. Journal of Economic Geography. (2010). Pp1-28.
- Tyler, P with Warnock, C and Provins, A. Valuing the Benefits of Regeneration. Communities and Local Government. Economics Paper 7. Summary. December 2010.
- Tyler, P with Warnock, C and Provins, A. Valuing the Benefits of Regeneration. Communities and Local Government. Economics Paper 7. Volume One. December 2010.
- Tyler, P with Warnock, C and Provins, A. Valuing the Benefits of Regeneration. Communities and Local Government. Economics Paper 7. Volume Two. December 2010.
- Tyler, P with Bailey, D, de Ruyter, A and Michie, J. Global Restructuring and the Auto Industry. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society. November 2010, 3 (3).
- Tyler, P, Policy Analysis on the Performance of Cohesion Policy. European Commission, Directorate General Regional Policy. 2010.
- Tyler, P, Policy Analysis on the Performance of Cohesion Innovation Policy. European Commission, Directorate General Regional Policy. 2010.
- Tyler P, with Christopherson S, Michie J and Regional Resilience: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society *3*, 3-10. 2010.
- Why Do Neighbourhoods Stay Poor? Deprivation, Place and People in Birmingham. Fenton, A, Tyler, P, Markkenen, S and Clarke, A. Barrow Cadbury Trust. 2010.
- Tyler, P with others. New Deal for Communities; National Evaluation; Issues around Value for Money. Department for Communities and Local Government. 2010.
- Tyler, P with others. National Evaluation of Participatory Budgeting in England: Interim Evaluation Report. Department of Communities and Local Government. 2010.
- Tyler, P with Rhodes, J and Brennan, A. Department of Communities and Local Government. 2009. A. National Evaluation of the Single Regeneration Budget. Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge.
- Tyler, P, Warnock, C and Brennan, Assessing the Additionality of Economic Regeneration Policy, Department of Business, Innovation and Skills. 2009.
- Tyler, P, with Warnock, C, Lewney, R, Johnstone, D, Fenton, A, Clarke, A and Brennan, A. A Scoping Study of the Working Neighbourhoods Fund. Department of Communities and Local Government, 2009.
- Tyler, P, Glasmeier, A, Martin, R and Dorling, D ‘Poverty and Place in the UK and the USA.’ Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society 1(1): 1-16, 2008. [ISSN: 1752-1378] [doi:10.1093/cjres/rsn004].
- Tyler, P, Bond, S and Gardiner, B ‘The Relationship between National Non-Domestic Rates and Rents on Commercial Property: Empirical Evidence from Enterprise Zones.’ HM Treasury Research Series: Report 42, 97pp, 2008.
- Tyler, P with Gardiner, B, Kitson, M and Martin, R. Analysis of Postcode-based Income Estimates to evaluate Area-Based Initiatives. Department for Work and Pensions, 2008.
- Tyler, P with Fenton, A, Markkenen, S and Clarke, A The “Ward Penalty in Birmingham”. Barrow Cadbury Trust, 2008.
- Tyler, P with Brennan, A and Warnock, C. Measuring Public Services at a Neighbourhood Level: Lessons and Challenges. Communities and Local Government. 2008.
- Tyler, P, Warnock, C and Brennan, A. Measuring and Valuing Public Services at the Neighbourhood. Communities and Local Government. 2008.
- Tyler, P with others. Neighbourhood Management Pathfinders. Final Evaluation Report: People, Places, Public Services: Making the Connections (Final Report of Evaluation Team). Communities and Local Government. 2008.
- Tyler, P with Brennan, A and Warnock, C. The New Deal for Communities Programme: Expenditure and Outputs. Communities and Local Government. 2008.
- Evaluation of the Single Regeneration Budget: The Final Evaluation. (With Rhodes, J, Brennan, A, Otero-Garcia, M, Stevens, S, and Warnock, C). Department of Communities and Local Government, 2007.
- Enterprising Places: Sustaining Competitive Locations for Technology-Based Activity (with Baxter, C, Moore, B, Morrison, N, McGaffin, R and Otero-Garcia, M) CMI-MIT Research Series, Cambridge, 2007.
- Facilitating Enterprising Places: the Role of Intermediaries in the United States and the United Kingdom. Tyler, P and Baxter, C. In Polenske, K. The Economic Geography of Innovation. Cambridge University Press, 2007.
- Government Regeneration Policy in the Suburbs of the United Kingdom. Redeveloping Inner Ring Suburbs, Peiser, R Ed. 2007.
- Comments on Rhodes et al. Some Further Thoughts on Assessing the Effects of Area Based Local Outcomes: A Reply, Urban Studies, May 2007.
- The East of England. Tyler, P and Gray, Mia and Martin, R. In the English Regions. Irene Hardill and Les Budd. Routledge. 2006.
- Evaluating the Impact of the Structural Funds on the Objective One Regions; An Exploratory Note, Tyler, P and Martin, R. Regional Studies. April 2006
- Regional Competitiveness. (Eds with Martin, R and Kitson M) Routledge, 2006
- Regional Competitiveness: An Elusive yet Key Concept, Tyler, P with Kitson, M and Martin, R. in Regional Competitiveness. Association of Regional Observatories, 2005.
- Regional Dimensions of Europe’s Growth Problem: Some Brief Reflections on the Sapir Report, Tyler, P with Gardiner, B and Martin, R. Regional Studies, October 2005.
- Tackling Social Exclusion at the Neighbourhood Level: New Findings from the National Evaluation of the Single Regeneration Budget,Tyler, P with Rhodes, J and Brennan, A.. Urban Studies, October 2005.
- Assessing the Effects of Area-based Initiatives on Local Area Outcomes: Some thoughts based on the National Evaluation of the Single Regeneration Budget in England (with Brennan A) Urban Studies, vol 42.11, pp 1-28, October 2005.
- Developing the Rural Dimension of Business Support Policy (with Anderson, D and McCallion, T) Environment and Planning C, 23, pp519-36, 2005.
- Redundancy, Readjustment and Employability: What Can We Learn From the 2000 Harland and Wolff Redundancy? (With Shuttleworth, I and McKinstry, D) Environment and Planning, A, , 37, 9 pp1651-68, 2005.
- Regional Competitiveness and Productivity across the European Union. (with Gardiner, B and Martin, M) Regional Studies vol 39, 9 pp1045-1067, December 2004.
- Business Led Regeneration in Deprived Areas, Tyler, P with Trends Business Research and Urbed. Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (Neighbourhood Renewal Unit)/ Small Business Service. 2004.
- New Developments in Area-based Initiatives in England: The experience of the Single Regeneration Budget, (with Rhodes J and Brennan A) Urban Studies, vol 40.8, pp1399-1426, July 2003
- A Good Practice Guide for Businesses Locating in Deprived Areas, by Tyler, P with Johnstone, D, Johnstone, S and Warnock, C. Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, Neighbourhood Renewal Unit. 2003.
- Turning Areas Around; The Impact of SRB on Final Outcomes. Tyler, P with Rhodes, J and Brennan A. Office Deputy Prime Minister, 2003.
- The Effectiveness of Government Regeneration Initiatives; the Experience from the Single Regeneration Budget, Tyler, P with Rhodes, J and Brennan, A. Published in the House of Commons Select Committee inquiry into the Effectiveness of Government Regeneration Initiatives. House of Commons, 2002/3
- Lessons and evaluation evidence from ten Single Regeneration Budget case studies – Mid Term Report (with Rhodes J, Brennan A, Stevens S, Warnock C and Otero-García M) Department of Transport, Local Government and the Regions, 2002
- The Potential Role for Fiscal Incentives in the Economic Regeneration of Former Coalfield Areas, Tyler, P in association with Segal Quince Wicksteed and Cambridge Econometrics. Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, 2002.
- Rethinking Regional Development. Regional Studies (37, 6/7) (with Asheim, B, Glasmeier, A, Gray, M, Fingleton, B, Kitson, M and McCombie, J). 2002.
- Evaluation Issues for the Urban White Paper Fiscal Measures, Tyler, P with Sadiq, K and Elliott, D. Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, Nov, 2002.
- Urban Regeneration in Northern Ireland and Measuring the Impact of Policy. Tyler, P and Warnock, C. Report to Department of Social Development, Northern Ireland. 2002.
- Lessons and Evaluation Evidence from Single Regeneration Budget Case Studies-Mid Term Report. Tyler, P with Rhodes, R , Brennan, A, Warnock, C and Stevens, S. Office Deputy Prime Minister, 2002.
- A Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy for Northern Ireland, Department of Social Development, Northern Ireland. Tyler, P with Rhodes, J. 2002.
- A Study of the Harland and Wolff Redundancy. Report to Research and Evaluation Branch, Department of Employment and Learning, Northern Ireland. By Tyler, P and Shuttleworth, 2002.
- What Became of the Harland and Wolff Workers? Tyler, P with Shuttleworth, I and McKinstrey, D. Labour Market Bulletin, Training and Employment Agency, 2002, Northern Ireland.
- National Evaluation of the Former Regeneration Programmes, by Tyler, P, with Begg, H, and Warnock, C. Scottish Executive, 2001 (ISBN 07559 2144 5).
- Assessment of Retail Need in London and the impact of PG6. Tyler, P with a City Property Company, unpublished mimeo for the Greater London Authority, 2001
- Labour's New Regional Policy: An Assessment (with Fothergill, S, Martin, R and Rowthorn, R). London: Regional Studies Association, 2001.
- The Nature of Local Area Social Exclusion in England and the Role of the Labour Market (with Brennan A and Rhodes J) Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Vol. 16 No 1. Spring 2000.
- A Review of the Evidence Base for Regeneration Policy (with Dabinett G, Lawless P and Rhodes J) Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions, 2000.
- Rekindling the Urban Job Base; the Agenda for Policy, New Economy, Vol. 6, Issue 4. December 1999.
- The Distribution of the SRB Challenge Fund in Relation to Local Area Need in England (with Brennan A. and Rhodes J) Urban Studies, Vol. 36, No 12, 2069-2084, 1999
- Evaluation of the Single Regeneration Challenge Fund. First Final Evaluation of Three Case Studies (with Brennan A and Rhodes J), Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, 1999.
- Evaluation of the Single Regeneration Budget Challenge Fund. A partnership for regeneration - an interim evaluation (with Rhodes J and Brennan A) Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions 1998.
Spatially Unbalanced Growth in the British Economy. Ben Gardiner, Ron Martin and Peter Tyler. Centre for Geographical Research Paper No. 1.
The financial crisis and consequential recession that brought the UK's long economic boom of 1993-2008 to a dramatic end have generated considerable debate about the need to 'rebalance' the economy, both sectorally and spatially. This paper examines the scale and nature of imbalance in the UK economy. It reviews what different theories of regional growth have to say about the issue of spatial and sectoral imbalance. Against this background, it identifies the stylised facts of sectoral and spatial imbalance, particularly as between the South and North of the United Kingdom. The paper uses dynamic multi-factor partitioning methods to determine the relative contribution that sectoral composition has made to North-South regional imbalance. In the light of the findings the paper argues that there is an urgent need for a clearly identified industrial policy that is coordinated with a regional policy that seriously begins to address the North-South imbalance in the UK's economy that has become so deep-seated over recent decades.
The Geography of austerity. Mike Kitson, Ron Martin and Peter Tyler
- Also, see Blog at: http://blog.oup.com/2011/11/austerity/
- And Journal at: http://cjres.oxfordjournals.org/content/current
Geography and development. Harry Garretsen, Mark Roberts and Peter Tyler
Making Enterprise Zones Work: Lessons from Previous Enterprise Zone Policy in the United Kingdom
This paper provides a brief summary of what is known about the previous achievements of enterprise zone in the United Kingdom and to identify key lessons learned by those who were responsible for implementing the policy. Although there are some important differences in the policy incentives available in the new zones relative to the previous zones the broad approach remains similar and it is hoped that this review of experience will help to stimulate informed discussion on enterprise zone policy and its delivery. The paper begins by providing a brief overview of the achievements of the enterprise zones designated in the early 1980s and the features of zone policy that appeared to help performance. It considers issues that are relevant to maximising the contribution that the policy can make to local economic development and the impacts it has on local property markets. It concludes with a brief discussion on the position following the de-designation of a zone.
House of Commons Select Committee Inquiry into Regeneration. May 2011. Peter Tyler and Colin Warnock.
The Impact of Tax Incentives on Local Real Estate Markets: the Question of Incidence. Shaun Bond, Ben Gardiner and Pete Tyler
Research on the impact of property taxes on local real estate markets has a long history in the urban economics literature. However, very few studies have considered this issue in the context of the commercial real estate market or on data from outside the United States. This is surprising as many local and national governments consider property tax exemptions as part of a package of incentives to aid in the regeneration of areas of economic deprivation. A prominent example of this has been Enterprise Zones. However, the impact of such incentives on local real estate markets is often unknown. In this study we use a novel data set, collected by a government agency, of commercial real estate leases. Our data set covers both taxed and tax exempt areas during the operation of the enterprise zone designations in the United Kingdom. This data allows us to investigate the incidence of the local property tax savings for properties located in Enterprise Zones. Our findings show that a large part of the tax savings appears to be captured in higher rents charged by landlords.
The persistence of Inequality. Philip Aretis, Ron Martin and Peter Tyler
Global restructuring and the auto industry. David Bailey, Alex de Ruyter, Jonathan Michie and Peter Tyler
Regional resilience: theoretical and empirical perspectives. Susan Christopherson, Jonathan Michie and Peter Tyler
Poverty and Place in the United Kingdom and the USA. Amy Glasmeier, Ron Martin, Peter Tyler and Danny Dorling
Strategies for Underperforming Places.
The UK Government has been concerned to address the problems of places that undergo decline and are in need of regeneration. The Department of Communities and Local Government commissioned Peter to produce a paper on strategies for underperforming places. His paper was presented along side contributions from Professor Paul Lawless (Sheffield Hallam University) and Professor Henry Overman (LSE) at a seminar at DCLG. The three papers are to be found at: http://www.spatialeconomics.ac.uk/textonly/SERC/publications/download/sercpp006.pdf
The regeneration and Economic Analysis Expert Panel (DCLG) commissioned Peter to consider the nature of regeneration problems and what can be achieved in addressing them. This was part of an internal review looking at the future role for regeneration.
UK Infrastructure Transitions Research Consortium (ITRC)
( is a major new research initiative funded by a £4.5 million grant from the EPSRC Research Council with further University support worth £1 million and £1.6 million of support from industry and government departments and agencies. Peter represents the Cambridge University input on this major new research initiative designed to develop and demonstrate a new generation of system simulation models and tools to inform analysis, planning and design of national infrastructure. )
UK infrastructure is acutely vulnerable to changes in the weather and other threats because of the interdependence of our five key networks – energy, transport, telecommunications, water and waste. Efficient and reliable infrastructure systems are essential to the growth and competitiveness of the UK economy and to quality of life and the environment. Now a world-leading team of engineers and scientists has been pulled together to analyze the risks in the face of an uncertain future and suggest ways in which we can protect our infrastructure against potential meltdown. The team will be analyzing how this can be done at the same time as meeting ambitious targets for carbon emissions reduction from energy, transport and other infrastructures.
Programme on Regional Innovation:
Valuing the benefits of regeneration
Peter Tyler has recently completed a major study for the Department for Communities and Local Government (CLG) to examine how the benefits of regeneration and economic development might be valued. The research, which was undertaken in association with eftec, CRESR (Sheffield Hallam University) and Anne Green at the University of Warwick, provides an analytical framework that will underpin a programme of research on the value of the benefits from regeneration and how they compare with the relevant costs. The study assembled the available evidence base, identified potential challenges and provided constructive suggestions on how these could be overcome. It also calculates high level estimates for benefit cost ratios and value for money both generally and for specific types of scheme. The main report can be downloaded from the CLG website http://www.communities.gov.uk/publications/regeneration/valuingbenefitsregen.
Does spatial agglomeration increase national growth? some evidence from Europe.
Economic geographers and regional economists have long been concerned with the problems provoked by uneven regional development and the ways by which policy intervention may be able to reduce such inequalities. However, in recent years the traditional argument for seeking to secure a reduction in the spatial concentration of economic activity in particular regions has been questioned and in some cases it has been suggested that policies that try to reduce regional economic inequalities may even reduce national efficiency. This article examines the evidence for a link between growth in productivity and the degree of spatial agglomeration across the nations of Europe. In doing so it considers how spatial agglomeration should be measured and how the relationship between agglomeration and the growth of productivity can be modelled.
Expert Evaluation Network on the Performance of Cohesion Policy 2007-2013.
Peter has also recently completed a study for the DG XV1 (Regio) of the European Commission tasked to examine and synthesise evaluation results and undertake analysis at Member State level on the performance of Cohesion Policy 2007-2013 as part of European wide Expert Network. He was responsible for the United Kingdom component and the reports are available at: http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/evaluation/rado_en.htm
Research to improve the assessment of additionality (2009).
Directed by Professor Peter Tyler this assignment was undertaken for the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills to capture additional evaluation evidence on regeneration additionality. The study was designed to collate and analyse new evidence gathered on additionality in recent years, particularly as a result of the independent assessment of the impact of the spending of the nine English Regional Development Agencies. The Report has now been published and is available at
National Evaluation of Participatory Budgeting (PB). Peter is part of a team that is undertaking a study for Communities and Local Government on Participatory Budgeting in England. The team is delivering an initial scoping study and process evaluation of the Programme, which involves detailed fieldwork, case studies, the development of a pre-PB baseline and the development, dissemination and assessment of a model for assessing the costs, impacts and effectiveness of PB.
Neighbourhood Management Pathfinders:
National Evaluation of New Deal for Communities:
Working Neighbourhood Fund-New Research Just Published By Communities and Local Government.
The Working Neighbourhoods Fund – Scoping Study (2009).
Directed by Professor Peter Tyler the aim of this scoping study, commissioned by Communities and Local Government, was to provide a top-line analysis of conditions in WNF areas, an early understanding about how strategies and partnerships are evolving to tackle worklessness and an early understanding of how WNF is being used. The work programme was divided into three phases which began by looking at available data to provide a top-line analysis of the WNF areas. It then examined how WNF was being used to tackle worklessness and how governance and partnerships arrangements had developed. This involved an online survey of all WNF areas followed up by in-depth interviews of 20 WNF areas. The final part of the study proposed a set of key outcomes to provide a baseline of conditions in the WNF areas for use in comparing the areas before and after the WNF interventions. In addition the study also provided an approach that could be used for an interim evaluation of the programme through the development of an Evaluation Plan.
Single Regeneration Budget:
The Single Regeneration Budget: Final Evaluation - Full Report:
Lessons and evaluation evidence from 10 Single Regeneration Budget case studies - Mid Term Report (DTLR) [
Evaluation of the Single Regeneration Budget Challenge Fund; Summary household survey results 1996-1999, Department of Land Economy Discussion Paper 122.
"The Nature of Local Area Social Exclusion in England and the Role of the Labour Market." Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 16(1), 2000.
"The Distribution of the SRB Challenge Fund Expenditure in Relation to Local-area Need in England." Urban Studies, 36(12), 1999.
Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, A Partnership for Regeneration - an interim evaluation, 1998. Published by DETR (now DTLR).