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Department of Land Economy

Environment, Law & Economics

Professor Pete Tyler - Research 

Spatially Unbalanced Growth in the British Economy. Ben Gardiner, Ron Martin and Peter Tyler. Centre for Geographical Research Paper No. 1.

The financial crisis and consequential recession that brought the UK's long economic boom of 1993-2008 to a dramatic end have generated considerable debate about the need to 'rebalance' the economy, both sectorally and spatially. This paper examines the scale and nature of imbalance in the UK economy. It reviews what different theories of regional growth have to say about the issue of spatial and sectoral imbalance. Against this background, it identifies the stylised facts of sectoral and spatial imbalance, particularly as between the South and North of the United Kingdom. The paper uses dynamic multi-factor partitioning methods to determine the relative contribution that sectoral composition has made to North-South regional imbalance. In the light of the findings the paper argues that there is an urgent need for a clearly identified industrial policy that is coordinated with a regional policy that seriously begins to address the North-South imbalance in the UK's economy that has become so deep-seated over recent decades.

The Geography of austerity. Mike Kitson, Ron Martin and Peter Tyler

Geography and development. Harry Garretsen, Mark Roberts and Peter Tyler

Making Enterprise Zones Work: Lessons from Previous Enterprise Zone Policy in the United Kingdom

This paper provides a brief summary of what is known about the previous achievements of enterprise zone in the United Kingdom and to identify key lessons learned by those who were responsible for implementing the policy.   Although there are some important differences in the policy incentives available in the new zones relative to the previous zones the broad approach remains similar and it is hoped that this review of experience will help to stimulate informed discussion on enterprise zone policy and its delivery.  The paper begins by providing a brief overview of the achievements of the enterprise zones designated in the early 1980s and the features of zone policy that appeared to help performance.  It considers issues that are relevant to maximising the contribution that the policy can make to local economic development and the impacts it has on local property markets.  It concludes with a brief discussion on the position following the de-designation of a zone.

House of Commons Select Committee Inquiry into Regeneration. May 2011. Peter Tyler and Colin Warnock.

The Impact of Tax Incentives on Local Real Estate Markets: the Question of Incidence. Shaun Bond, Ben Gardiner and Pete Tyler

Research on the impact of property taxes on local real estate markets has a long history in the urban economics literature. However, very few studies have considered this issue in the context of the commercial real estate market or on data from outside the United States. This is surprising as many local and national governments consider property tax exemptions as part of a package of incentives to aid in the regeneration of areas of economic deprivation. A prominent example of this has been Enterprise Zones.  However, the impact of such incentives on local real estate markets is often unknown. In this study we use a novel data set, collected by a government agency, of commercial real estate leases. Our data set covers both taxed and tax exempt areas during the operation of the enterprise zone designations in the United Kingdom. This data allows us to investigate the incidence of the local property tax savings for properties located in Enterprise Zones. Our findings show that a large part of the tax savings appears to be captured in higher rents charged by landlords.

The persistence of Inequality. Philip Aretis, Ron Martin and Peter Tyler

Global restructuring and the auto industry. David Bailey, Alex de Ruyter, Jonathan Michie and Peter Tyler

Regional resilience: theoretical and empirical perspectives. Susan Christopherson, Jonathan Michie and Peter Tyler

Poverty and Place in the United Kingdom and the USA. Amy Glasmeier, Ron Martin, Peter Tyler and Danny Dorling

  • Editorial: Poverty and place in the UK and the USA

Strategies for Underperforming Places.

The UK Government has been concerned to address the problems of places that undergo decline and are in need of regeneration.  The Department of Communities and Local Government commissioned Peter to produce a paper on strategies for underperforming places.  His paper was presented along side contributions from Professor Paul Lawless (Sheffield Hallam University) and Professor Henry Overman (LSE) at a seminar at DCLG. The three papers are to be found at:

The regeneration and Economic Analysis Expert Panel (DCLG) commissioned Peter to consider the nature of regeneration problems and what can be achieved in addressing them. This was part of an internal review looking at the future role for regeneration.
Regeneration - What are the problems and what can we achieve in addressing them?

UK Infrastructure Transitions Research Consortium (ITRC)

(UK Infrastructure Transitions Research Consortium) is a major new research initiative funded by a £4.5 million grant from the EPSRC Research Council with further University support worth £1 million and £1.6 million of support from industry and government departments and agencies. Peter represents the Cambridge University input on this major new research initiative designed to develop and demonstrate a new generation of system simulation models and tools to inform analysis, planning and design of national infrastructure.

UK infrastructure is acutely vulnerable to changes in the weather and other threats because of the interdependence of our five key networks – energy, transport, telecommunications, water and waste. Efficient and reliable infrastructure systems are essential to the growth and competitiveness of the UK economy and to quality of life and the environment. Now a world-leading team of engineers and scientists has been pulled together to analyze the risks in the face of an uncertain future and suggest ways in which we can protect our infrastructure against potential meltdown. The team will be analyzing how this can be done at the same time as meeting ambitious targets for carbon emissions reduction from energy, transport and other infrastructures.

Latest reports:

Programme on Regional Innovation:

Enterprising Places: Sustaining Competitive Locations For Technology-Based Activity

OECD Report:

Promoting entrepreneurship, employment and business competitiveness, THE EXPERIENCE OF BARCELONA

Valuing the benefits of regeneration

Peter Tyler has recently completed a major study for the Department for Communities and Local Government (CLG) to examine how the benefits of regeneration and economic development might be valued. The research, which was undertaken in association with eftec, CRESR (Sheffield Hallam University) and Anne Green at the University of Warwick, provides an analytical framework that will underpin a programme of research on the value of the benefits from regeneration and how they compare with the relevant costs. The study assembled the available evidence base, identified potential challenges and provided constructive suggestions on how these could be overcome. It also calculates high level estimates for benefit cost ratios and value for money both generally and for specific types of scheme. The main report can be downloaded from the CLG website

Does spatial agglomeration increase national growth? some evidence from Europe.

Economic geographers and regional economists have long been concerned with the problems provoked by uneven regional development and the ways by which policy intervention may be able to reduce such inequalities. However, in recent years the traditional argument for seeking to secure a reduction in the spatial concentration of economic activity in particular regions has been questioned and in some cases it has been suggested that policies that try to reduce regional economic inequalities may even reduce national efficiency. This article examines the evidence for a link between growth in productivity and the degree of spatial agglomeration across the nations of Europe. In doing so it considers how spatial agglomeration should be measured and how the relationship between agglomeration and the growth of productivity can be modelled. Journal of Economic Geography Advance Access published December 24, 2010

Expert Evaluation Network on the Performance of Cohesion Policy 2007-2013.

Peter has also recently completed a study for the DG XV1 (Regio) of the European Commission tasked to examine and synthesise evaluation results and undertake analysis at Member State level on the performance of Cohesion Policy 2007-2013 as part of European wide Expert Network. He was responsible for the United Kingdom component and the reports are available at:

Research to improve the assessment of additionality (2009).

Directed by Professor Peter Tyler this assignment was undertaken for the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills to capture additional evaluation evidence on regeneration additionality. The study was designed to collate and analyse new evidence gathered on additionality in recent years, particularly as a result of the independent assessment of the impact of the spending of the nine English Regional Development Agencies. The Report has now been published and is available at

National Evaluation of Participatory Budgeting (PB). Peter is part of a team that is undertaking a study for Communities and Local Government on Participatory Budgeting in England. The team is delivering an initial scoping study and process evaluation of the Programme, which involves detailed fieldwork, case studies, the development of a pre-PB baseline and the development, dissemination and assessment of a model for assessing the costs, impacts and effectiveness of PB.

Neighbourhood Management Pathfinders:

Final Evaluation Report, People, Places, Public Services: Making the Connections

National Evaluation of New Deal for Communities:

Working Neighbourhood Fund-New Research Just Published By Communities and Local Government.

WNF final report

The Working Neighbourhoods Fund – Scoping Study (2009).

Directed by Professor Peter Tyler the aim of this scoping study, commissioned by Communities and Local Government, was to provide a top-line analysis of conditions in WNF areas, an early understanding about how strategies and partnerships are evolving to tackle worklessness and an early understanding of how WNF is being used. The work programme was divided into three phases which began by looking at available data to provide a top-line analysis of the WNF areas. It then examined how WNF was being used to tackle worklessness and how governance and partnerships arrangements had developed. This involved an online survey of all WNF areas followed up by in-depth interviews of 20 WNF areas. The final part of the study proposed a set of key outcomes to provide a baseline of conditions in the WNF areas for use in comparing the areas before and after the WNF interventions. In addition the study also provided an approach that could be used for an interim evaluation of the programme through the development of an Evaluation Plan.

Single Regeneration Budget:

The Single Regeneration Budget: Final Evaluation - Research Summary

The Single Regeneration Budget: Final Evaluation - Full Report [ Part I / Part II / Part III / Annexes]

Lessons and evaluation evidence from 10 Single Regeneration Budget case studies - Mid Term Report (DTLR) [Main document / Annex].

Answering the really difficult questions: the role of Loacal Social surveys in assessing the impact of regeneration initiatives, Department of Land Economy Discussion Paper 121.

Evaluation of the Single Regeneration Budget Challenge Fund; Summary household survey results 1996-1999, Department of Land Economy Discussion Paper 122.

"The Nature of Local Area Social Exclusion in England and the Role of the Labour Market." Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 16(1), 2000.

Second final evaluation of two SRB short duration case studies (Engineering in Education in the West Midlands and the West Cornwall Initiative), Department of Land Economy Discussion Paper 114.

First final evaluation of three SRB short duration case studies. (Northumbria Community Safety, Brent and Harrow and Limes Farm Estate), Department of Land Economy Discussion Paper 111.

An examination of baseline issues, Department of Land Economy Discussion Paper 109.

New findings on the nature of economic and social exclusion in England; implications for new policy initiatives, Department of Land Economy Discussion Paper 101.

Key results from the residents' baseline social surveys, Department of Land Economy Discussion Paper 100.

"The Distribution of the SRB Challenge Fund Expenditure in Relation to Local-area Need in England." Urban Studies, 36(12), 1999.

Expenditure in relation to local area needs in England, Department of Land Economy Discussion Paper 91.

Evaluation of the Single Regeneration Budget Challenge Fund - A Partnership for Regeneration: An interim evaluation (1998) [Main document / Appendices]

Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, A Partnership for Regeneration - an interim evaluation, 1998. Published by DETR (now DTLR).

The evaluation framework, Department of Land Economy Discussion Paper 83.

An examination of unsuccessful bids, Department of Land Economy Discussion Paper 74.