Academic profile

Ian is Emeritus Professor of Rural Economy and a Life Fellow of Hughes Hall.  He came to the University of Cambridge in 1983 and was the Gilbey Lecturer until 2000.  He retired in 2019.  Prior to Cambridge he lectured in agricultural economics at the Universities of Newcastle and Queensland.  He was head of Department of Land Economy, 2002-2011. 

He is currently a member of Defra’s Economic Advisory Panel and the National Trust East and Midlands Regional Advisory Group.  He is a trustee of Markshall Estate in Essex.  He was previously a President of the Agricultural Economics Society, Fellow of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors and a trustee of Nene Park Trust. He was President of the Queensland Branch of the Australian Agricultural Economics Society, 1981.

Ian undertakes research and has published widely in the areas of rural environmental governance, property institutions, rural development and land use, including books on Rural Employment (with Martin Whitby), Countryside in Trust (with Janet Dwyer), Environmental Economics, and the Governance of the Countryside.




Lecturing on Paper 16: Land Food and Ecosystem Services in 2022-23.


Research interests

Ian’s current focus is on the development of the Environment Land Management schemes in England and the implementation of local environmental governance.



Key publications: 

Recent publications

  • Hodge, Ian (2023)  Supporting nature conservation through an ecosystem services policy. Chapter 7 pp121-135 in Andrew L. R. Jackson (ed.) Nature Law and Policy in Europe, Routledge, London.
  • Hodge, Ian (2022) Devolve decisions to represent local priorities and integrate delivery. Written evidence to House of Lords Select Committee on Use in England (LUE0033)

  • Hodge, Ian (2020) New approaches to rural land management and governance: restoration, regeneration and rewilding.

  • Vatn, A., Kvakkestad, V.,  Steiro, Å L. and Hodge, I. (2020) Pesticide taxes or voluntary action? An analysis of responses among Norwegian grain farmers. Journal of Environmental Management 276, 111074.

  • Hodge, Ian (2020) Future stewardship of national landscapes: challenges and opportunities of the Glover report. Ecos 41 (5)

  • Gawith, David, Hodge, Ian, Morgan, Fraser and Daigneault, Adam (2020) Climate change costs more than we think because people adapt less than we assume.  Ecological Economics Volume 173, 106636.

  • Hodge, Ian (2019) Renewing the Governance of Rural Land after Brexit: an Ecosystems Policy Approach. EuroChoices 18 (2) 4-10.

  • Gawith, David and Hodge, Ian (2019) Focus rural land policies on ecosystem services, not agriculture. Nature Ecology and Evolution. 3, 1136-1139;

  • Gawith,David and Hodge, Ian (2018) Moving beyond description to explore the empirics of adaptation constraints.  Ecological Indicators 95 (1) 907-916.

  • Reader, Mark A., Revoredo-Giha, Cesar, Lawrence, Rachel J., Hodge, Ian D. and Lang, Ben G.A. (2018) Farmers’ spending on variable inputs tends to maximise crop yields, not profit. International Journal of Agricultural Management, 7 (1) 1-11

  • Gawith, David and Hodge, Ian (2017) Envisioning a British Ecosystem Services Policy. Policy Brief. University of Cambridge Department of Land Economy and Cambridge Centre for Science and Policy.

  • Ishihara, Hiroe, Pascual, Unai, Hodge, Ian (2017) Dancing With Storks: The Role of Power Relations in Payments for Ecosystem Services. Ecological Economics, 139, 45-54.

  • Hodge, Ian (2016) We need a British Ecosystem Services Policy not a British Agricultural Policy.

  • Hodge, Ian and Adams, William M. (2016) Short-Term Projects versus Adaptive Governance: Conflicting Demands in the Management of Ecological Restoration. Land 5(4), 39; doi:10.3390/land5040039

  • Dwyer, Janet and Hodge, Ian (2016) Governance structures for social-ecological systems: Assessing institutional options against a social residual claimant.  Environmental Science and Policy 66, 1-10.

  • Adams, W. M., I. D. Hodge, N. A. Macgregor and L. C. Sandbrook (2016) Creating restoration landscapes: partnerships in large-scale conservation in the UK. Ecology and Society 21 (3):1. [online] URL:

  • Hodge, Ian (2016) The Governance of the Countryside: Property, Planning and Policy. Cambridge University Press.

  • Hodge, Ian, Hauck, Jennifer, and Bonn, Aletta (2015) The alignment of agricultural and nature conservation policies in the European Union. Conservation Biology 29 (4) 996-1005.

  • Hodge, Ian (2015) Implications of Resilience.  Evidence submitted to the House of Lords EU Energy and Environment Sub-Committee. Responding to price volatility: creating a more resilient agricultural sector inquiry. December.

  • Hodge, Ian D. and Adams, William M. (2014) Property institutions for rural land conservation: Towards a post-neoliberal agenda.  Journal of Rural Studies 36, 453-462.

  • Adams, William M., Hodge, Ian D. and Sandbrook, Lindsay (2014) New spaces for nature: the re-territorialisation of biodiversity conservation under neoliberalism in the UK. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 39 (4) 574-588.

  • Udagawa, Chihiro, Hodge, Ian and Reader, Mark (2014) Farm level costs of agri-environment measures: the impact of Entry Level Stewardship on cereal farm incomes. Journal of Agricultural Economics 65 (1) 212-233.
  • Hodge, I. (2013) Conservation covenants: A policy perspective.  Conveyancer and Property Lawyer 6, 490-500.
  • Dicks, Lynn V., Hodge, Ian, Randall, Nicola P., Scharlemann, Jӧrn  P.W, Siriwardena, Gavin M., Smith, Henrik G., Smith, Rebecca K, and Sutherland, William J. (2014) A transparent process for “evidence-informed” policy making. Conservation Letters 7 (2) 119-125.
  • Hodge, Ian D. and Adams, William M. (2013) The future of public forests: An institutional blending approach to forest governance in England. Journal of Rural Studies 31, 23-35.
  • Hodge, Ian (2013) Agri-environment policy in an era of lower government expenditure: CAP reform and conservation payments. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 56 (2) 254-270.
  • Hodge, Ian (2013) The Governance of Rural Landscapes: Property, Complexity and Policy. Chapter 5, pp 88-100, in Martijn van der Heide and Wim Heijman (eds.) The Economic Value of Landscapes. Routledge, London
  • Hodge, I.D. and Adams, W.M. (2012) Neoliberalisation, rural land trusts and institutional blending. Geoforum 43 (3) 472-482..
  • Davies, Ben and Hodge, Ian (2012) Shifting environmental perspectives in agriculture: Repeated Q analysis and the stability of preference structures.  Ecological Economics 83, 51-57.
  • Tuomisto, H.L., Hodge, I.D. Riordan, P. and Macdonald,  D.W. (2012) Does organic farming reduce environmental impacts? – A Meta-Analysis of European research.  Journal of Environmental Management 112, 309-320.
  • Tuomisto, H.L., Hodge, I.D., Riordan, P. and Macdonald, D.W.  (2012) Exploring a safe operating approach to weighting in life cycle impact assessment - A case study of organic, conventional and integrated farming systems.  Journal of Cleaner Production 37, 147-153.
  • Ortiz Miranda, Dionisio and Hodge, Ian (2012) Entre la propiedad agraria y la ambiental: El debate respecto a los derechos de propiedad de la tierra.  Revista Española de Estudios Agrosociales y Pesqueros 231, 31-62
  • Tuomisto, H.L., Hodge, I.D., Riordan, P. and Macdonald, D.W. (2012) Comparing global warming potential, energy use and land use of organic, conventional and integrated winter wheat production.  Annals of Applied Biology 161 (2) 116-126.
  • Milheiras, Sérgio and Hodge, Ian (2011) Attitudes towards compensation for wolf damage to livestock in Viana do Castelo, North of Portugal. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 24:3, 333-351
  • Hodge, I.D. and Adams, W.M. (2011) Forest sales – after the storm.  Ecos 32 (1) 9-14.
  • Adams, William M. and Hodge, Ian D. (2010)  The Crown Jewels and the Big Society. Ecos. 31 (3/4) 28-35.
  • Rands, Michael R. W., Adams, William M., Bennun, Leon, Butchart, Stuart H. M., Clements, Andrew, Coomes, David, Entwistle, Abigail, Hodge, Ian, Kapos, Valerie, Scharlemann, Jörn P. W., Sutherland, William J., and Vira, Bhaskar (2010) Biodiversity Conservation: Challenges Beyond 2010. Science 329, 1298 – 1303.
  • Sutherland, W.J., Albon, S.D., Allison, H., Armstrong-Brown, S., Bailey, M.J., Bereton, T., Boyd, I.L., Carey, P., Edwards, J., Gill, M., Hill, D., Hodge, I., Hunt, A.J., Le Quesne, W.J.F., Macdonald, D.W., Mee, L.D., Mitchell, R., Norman, T., Owen, R.P., Parker, D., Prior, S.V., Pullin, A.S., Rands, M.R.W., Redpath, S., Spencer, J., Spray, C.J., Thomas, C.D., Tucker, G,M., Watkinson, A.R. & Clements, A. (2010) The identification of priority opportunities for UK nature conservation policy. Journal of Applied Ecology 47, 955-965
  • Hodge, Ian and Reader, Mark (2010) The introduction of Entry Level Stewardship in England: Extension or dilution in agri-environment policy?  Land Use Policy 27 (2) 270-282.
  • Hodge, Ian (2009) The further development of agri-environment schemes: extending and defending conservation values.  Chapter 3, pp 33-52, in F. Brouwer and C. M. van der Heide (eds) Multifunctional Rural Land Management.  Earthscan, London and Sterling, VA.
  • Hodge, Ian (2009) Scenarios for rural land management: exploring alternative futures.  Journal of Farm Management 13 (9) 633-654.
  • Hodge, Ian and Midmore, Peter (2008) Models of Rural Development and Approaches to Analysis Evaluation and Decision-Making Économie Rurale  307, 23-38.
  • Hodge, Ian (2008) To what extent are environmental externalities a joint product of agriculture? Overview and policy implications.  pp85-118 in OECD Multifunctionality in Agriculture: Evaluating the Degree of Jointness, Policy Implications. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris.
  • Hodge, Ian (2007) The governance of rural land in a liberalised world.  Journal of Agricultural Economics 58 (3) 409-432.
  • Hodge, Ian and Ortiz-Miranda, Dionisio (2007) An institutional transactions approach to property rights adjustment: an application to Spanish agriculture.  Environment and Planning A 39, 1735-1751.
  • Davies, B.B. and Hodge, I.D. (2007) Exploring environmental perspectives in lowland agriculture: A Q methodology study in East Anglia, UK.  Ecological Economics, 61(2-3) 323-333.
  • Hodge, Ian (2007) Redéfinition des institutions et offre de biens et services ruraux multifonctionnels. pp505 – 511 in Max Falque, Henri Lamotte and Jean-François Saglio (eds.) Les Ressources Foncières: Droits de Propriété, Économie et Environnement, Bruylant, Brussels.
  • Urama, Kevin and Hodge, Ian (2006) Participatory environmental education and WTP for river basin management: Empirical evidence from Nigeria.  Land Economics 82 (4) 542-561.
  • Davies B.B. and Hodge I.D. (2006) Farmers’ preferences for new environmental policy instruments: Determining the acceptability of cross compliance for biodiversity benefits. Journal of Agricultural Economics 57 (3) 393-414.
  • Urama, Kevin and Hodge, Ian (2006) Are stated preferences convergent with revealed preferences? Empirical evidence from Nigeria. Ecological Economics 59 (1): 24-37.
  • Angus A. J., Hodge. I. D. and Sutton, M.A. (2006) Ammonia abatement strategies in livestock production: a case study of a poultry installation. Agricultural Systems 89 (1) 204-222.
  • Urama, Kevin and Hodge, Ian (2004) Irrigation externalities and agricultural sustainability in south-eastern Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Economics 55 (3) 479-501.
  • Hodge, Ian and Monk, Sarah (2004) The economic diversity of rural England: stylised fallacies and uncertain evidence. Journal of Rural Studies 20 (3) 263-272.
  • Hodge, Ian (2004) Methodology and action: economic rationales and agri-environmental policy choices, Chapter 17, pp 331-351 in Floor Brouwer (ed.) Sustaining Agriculture and the Rural Economy: Governance, policy and multifunctionality. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.
  • Angus A. J., Hodge. I. D., McNally, S. and Sutton, M.A. (2003) The setting of standards for agricultural nitrogen emissions: a case study of the Delphi technique. Journal of Environmental Management. 69 (4) 323-337.
  • Hodge, Ian (2003) Mainstreaming rural development policy under the CAP: an English perspective. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 5 (4) 361-378.
  • Hodge, Ian, Latacz-Lohmann, U., McNally, S., Renwick, A. and Rush, C. (2003) Beyond money for nothing; beyond set-aside? EuroChoices 2 (2) 26-31.
  • Midgley, J., Hodge, I. and Monk, S. (2003) Patterns and concentrations of disadvantage in England: A rural - urban perspective. Urban Studies 40 (8) 1427-54.
  • Latacz-Lohmann, U. and Hodge, I. (2003) European agri-environmental policy for the 21st Century. Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 47 (1) 123-39.
  • Hodge, Ian, Dunn, Jessica, Monk, Sarah and Fitzgerald, Maureen (2002) Barriers to participation in residual rural labour markets. Work, Employment and Society 16 (3) 455-474.



Rural environmental governance, Land use policy, property institutions and governance